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建筑外墻保溫板老化的原因
建筑外墻保溫板老化的原因
文章來源:本站原創  作者:網站管理員  瀏覽:1 更新時間:2020-03-03 14:17:45

 高層建筑在建設中安裝的外墻保溫板,即可以起到保溫隔熱的作用又對外墻體是一種保護作用,可以延長外墻體磚類混凝土材料的使用壽命。但隨著使用時間的延長外墻體保溫材料也會出現老化的現象,造成其老化的原因有哪些呢?下面我們簡單的介紹一下,大致分為五個方面。

 
1、熱應力。由溫差變化導致的熱脹冷縮,會引起非結構構造的體積變化,從而使之始終處于一種不穩定狀態,因此,熱應力是高層建筑外墻外保溫層主要破壞力量之一。相對于多層或平房建筑,高層建筑由于外層接受陽光照射更強,熱應力更大,變形也更大,因而在保溫抗裂構造設計時,選用保溫材料應滿足柔性漸變的原則,外層材料的變形能力應高于內層材料的變形能力。
 
2、風壓。一般來說,正風壓產生推力,負風壓產生吸力,對高層建筑外保溫層均會造成很大的破壞,這就要求外保溫層應具備相當的抗風壓能力,而且就抗風壓而言,要求保溫層無空腔,杜絕空氣層,從而避免在風壓特別是負風壓狀態下保溫層內空氣層的體積膨脹而造成對保溫層的破壞。
 
3、地震力。地震力會導致高層建筑結構和保溫面層的擠壓、剪切或扭曲變形,而保溫面層剛性越大,承受的地震力就越大,引起的破壞就可能越嚴重。這就要求高層建筑外墻外保溫材料在有相當附著力的前提下,必須滿足柔性漸變的原則,以分散和消納地震應力,盡量減輕保溫層表面的荷載,防止在地震力的影響下保溫層出現大面積開裂、剝離甚至脫落。
 
4、水或水蒸汽。為避免水或水蒸汽對高層建筑的破壞,應選用憎水性好、水蒸汽滲透性好的外保溫材料,避免水或水蒸汽在遷移過程中出現墻體結露或保溫層內部含水率增高的現象,提高高層建筑外保溫層的耐雨水侵蝕以及抗凍融能力。
 
5、火災。高層建筑比多層建筑的防火等級要求更高,高層建筑的保溫層應具有更好的抗火災功能,并應具有在火災情況下防止火災蔓延和防止釋放煙塵或有毒氣體的特性,材料強度和體積也不能損失降低過多,面層無爆裂、無塌落,否則,就會給住戶或消防人員造成傷害,對施救工作造成巨大的困難。
The external wall thermal insulation board installed in high-rise building can not only play the role of heat preservation and insulation, but also protect the external wall, which can prolong the service life of brick-like concrete materials. But with the extension of the use of external wall insulation materials will appear aging phenomenon, resulting in the aging of the reasons? Here we briefly introduce, roughly divided into five areas. 1. Thermal stress. Thermal stress is one of the main destructive forces of external thermal insulation of high-rise building because of the volume change of non-structure structure structure caused by the change of temperature difference. Compared with multi-storey or single-storey buildings, the outer layer of high-rise buildings is exposed to more sunlight, the thermal stress is bigger, and the deformation is bigger. Therefore, when designing the heat preservation and anti-cracking structure, the selection of heat preservation materials should meet the principle of flexible gradual change, the deformation capacity of the outer material shall be higher than that of the inner material. 2. Wind pressure. Generally speaking, positive wind pressure produces thrust and negative wind pressure produces suction, which will cause great damage to the external insulation layer of high-rise buildings. This requires that the external insulation layer should have considerable wind pressure resistance, and in terms of wind pressure resistance, it is required that the insulation layer has no cavity to avoid the air layer, so as to avoid the damage to the insulation layer caused by the volume expansion of the air layer in the insulation layer under the wind pressure, especially the negative wind pressure. 3. Earthquake Force. The earthquake force will cause the compression, shear or distortion of the high-rise building structure and the insulation surface, and the greater the rigidity of the insulation surface, the greater the earthquake force, and the more serious the damage may be caused. This requires that the exterior wall insulation materials of high-rise buildings must meet the principle of flexible gradual change under the premise of having considerable adhesion, so as to disperse and absorb earthquake stress, and reduce the load on the surface of the insulation layer as much as possible, to prevent large-area cracking, peeling off and even falling off of thermal insulation layer under the influence of earthquake force. 4. Water or steam. In order to avoid the damage of water or steam to the high-rise building, the external insulation material with good hydrophobicity and Water Vapor permeability should be chosen to avoid the phenomenon of wall condensation or high water content in the insulation layer during the transfer of water or water vapor, to improve the external insulation layer of high-rise buildings rain erosion and freeze-thaw resistance. 5. Fire. High-rise buildings are required to have higher fire protection levels than multi-story buildings. The insulation of high-rise buildings should have better fire protection functions, and should have the characteristics of preventing fire spreading and releasing smoke or toxic gases in case of fire, material strength and volume can not be too much loss, no explosion, no collapse, otherwise, it will cause harm to residents or fire personnel, on the rescue work caused great difficulties.
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